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OK, to save myself some typing, I'm going to simplify the foods database significantly. Here we go:

my %groups_to_foods = ( proteins => { eggs => 1, beef => 1, tofu => 1 }, carbs => { bread => 1, pizza => 1, twinkies => 1 }, vegetarian => { tofu => 1, bread => 1, twinkies => 1 } ); # it's just an example! # Is 'tofu' in 'carbs'? my $is_tofu_in_carbs = defined $groups_to_foods{ carbs }{ tofu }; # How many foods in the 'vegetarian' group? my $n_foods_in_vegetarian = scalar keys %{ $groups_to_foods{ vegetarian } }; # don't need "scalar" above; the assignment is already in # scalar context. # Next: invert the lookup table my %foods_to_groups; for my $group ( keys %groups_to_foods ) { my $hash_ref = $groups_to_foods{ $group }; for my $food ( keys %$hash_ref ) { $foods_to_groups{ $food }{ $group } = 1; } } # How many groups does 'twinkies' belong to? my $n_groups_for_twinkies = keys %{ $foods_to_groups{ twinkies } }; # How to change all the keys in %groups_to_foods to uppercase? # We assume that all the keys start out being in lowercase for my $group ( keys %groups_to_foods ) { $groups_to_foods{ uc $group } = $groups_to_foods{ $group }; delete $groups_to_foods{ $group }; } # Note that the values of the new hash are *identical* to # the values of the old hash; they refer to the same # locations in memory. This is because these hash values # are hash refs, and we just move them from one place to # another, just like transferring the title of a home from # one owner to the next owner leaves the home in place. # Actually, the last solution can be made a little slicker, # because the delete function returns the value # corresponding to the deleted key: for my $group ( keys %groups_to_foods ) { $groups_to_foods{ uc $group } = delete $groups_to_foods{ $group }; } # Write a sub to do the same thing for any hash # First we ignore the possibility of collisions; we # assume, for instance, that the keys are guaranteed # to be all in lowercase. sub uc_keys { my $hash_ref = shift; $hash_ref->{ uc $_ } = delete $hash_ref->{ $_ } for keys %$hash_ref; } # We could have omitted $_ in the call to uc, but let's # not. # With this definition, we can accomplish the uppercasing # of the groups like this: uc_keys( \ %groups_to_foods ); # OK, let's deal with the possibility of collisions. # Here's one simple (perhaps too simple) approach sub uc_keys { my $hash_ref = shift; { my %seen; for my $key ( keys %$hash_ref ) { my $uc_key = uc $key; die "Key collision! ($uc_key)\n" if defined $seen{ $uc_key }++; } } # if we made it this far, everything's ok # rest of code is exactly as before for my $key ( keys %$hash_ref ) { $hash_ref->{ uc $key } = delete $hash_ref->{ $key }; } } # One objection to the above solution is that uc is called # twice for every key in the original hash, which, for # sufficiently strained code, or sufficiently slow values # of uc, could be a problem. An alternative solution that # avoids this problem is this: sub uc_keys_2 { my $hash_ref = shift; my %new_hash; for my $key ( keys %$hash_ref ) { my $uc_key = uc $key; die "Key collision! ($uc_key)\n" if exists $new_hash{ $uc_key }; $new_hash{ $uc_key } = $hash_ref->{ $key }; } return \ %new_hash; } # In contrast to the first version, which returned nothing, # doing all its changes "in place", this one returns a # hash_ref. So, whereas uc_key would be used as already # shown above, uc_keys_2 would be used like this: %groups_to_foods = %{ uc_keys_2( \ %groups_to_foods ) }; # CAUTION: if instead of the last line one had used my %new_g2f = %{ uc_keys_2( \ %groups_to_foods ) }; # followed by $new_g2f{ CARBS }{ pasta } = 1; # this would result in changing the data in # %groups_to_foods, so that now the expression # $groups_to_foods{ carbs }{ pasta } equals 1. # This is because now the contents of $new_g2f{ CARBS } # and $groups_to_foods{ carbs } are *the same # hash ref*! This is leading into the topic of # deep copying. I give a link to an article on # deep copying below. # Last one: generalize the last sub so that it can take both # a sub and a hash and modifies the keys of the hash with # the input sub. We'll take the same tack as with the # last version of the last solution. The code is almost # identical. sub modify_keys { my $sub = shift; my $hash_ref = shift; my %new_hash; for my $key ( keys %$hash_ref ) { my $new_key = $sub->( $key ); die "Key collision! ($new_key)\n" if exists $new_hash{ $new_key }; $new_hash{ $new_key } = $hash_ref->{ $key }; } return \ %new_hash; }

The promised ref to the article on deep-copying (by merlyn) is here.

the lowliest monk

In reply to Re: References workout by tlm
in thread Continuing from "Turning foreach into map?" - perlreftut and References by ghenry

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