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XML equivalent of HTML::Entities?

by antihero (Novice)
on Jun 19, 2001 at 21:58 UTC ( #89757=categorized question: print w/replies, xml ) Need Help??
Contributed by antihero on Jun 19, 2001 at 21:58 UTC
Q&A  > data formatting


Is there an XML-related module which can convert characters into their entities (e.g. & turns into &)? I've been using HTML::Entities, but I feel that this isn't exactly the most elegant solution.

Answer: XML equivalent of HTML::Entities?
contributed by mirod

It all depends on the result you want.

If you want to get HTML entities (é as é, etc.) then it makes sense to use HTML::Entities.

If you want to escape only &, <, >, ", and ', then you can use XML::Parser::Expat::xml_escape, but frankly it doesn't make much sense to do that.

If you want to escape those characters and also to turn all characters outside of the 0-127 range into XML character entities (i.e. &#nnn;), then you can use the following subroutine, lifted from XML::DOM and not tested with all the possible system/Perl/XML-parser combinations:

sub safe_encode { my $str = shift; $str =~ s{ ([\xC0-\xDF].|[\xE0-\xEF]..|[\xF0-\xFF]...) }{ XmlUtf8Decode($1) }xegs; $str } sub XmlUtf8Decode { my( $str, $hex ) = @_; my $len = length $str; my $n; if ( $len == 4 ) { my @n = unpack "C4", $str; $n = (($n[0] & 0x0f) << 18) + (($n[1] & 0x3f) << 12) + (($n[2] + & 0x3f) << 6) + ($n[3] & 0x3f); } elsif ( $len == 3 ) { my @n = unpack "C3", $str; $n = (($n[0] & 0x1f) << 12) + (($n[1] & 0x3f) << 6) + ($n[2] & + 0x3f); } elsif ( $len == 2 ) { my @n = unpack "C2", $str; $n = (($n[0] & 0x3f) << 6) + ($n[1] & 0x3f); } elsif ( $len == 1 ) { $n = ord $str; } else { die "bad value '$str' for XmlUtf8Decode"; } $hex ? sprintf( "&#x%x;", $n ) : "&#$n;" }

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