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Munging file name, to be safe- & usable enough on Unix-like OSen & FAT32 file system
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by parv
on Nov 25, 2023 at 23:12

    A program written in a hurry some time ago to munge file paths generally for file systems for Unix(-like) OSen & specifically for FAT32.

    Learned the hard way that NTFS would allow file names to be written to FAT32 even if some characters are outside of FAT32 specification. Problematic characters seemed to be en- & em-dash, fancy quotes, pipe, Unicode "?", & possibly few others (web pages saved with title as the file name). Mounting FAT32 file system on FreeBSD with specific codepage(s), or "nowin95" or "shortnames" mount options did not help (mount_msdosfs(8)). Munging it was then🤷🏽‍♂️

    # use strict; use warnings; use feature qw[ state ]; use File::Copy qw[ move ]; @ARGV or die qq[Give a file name to sanitize.\n]; my $dry_run = 0; my $noisy = 1; my $lowercase = 1 ; my $for_windows = 1; my $clean_past_255 = 1; # General cleansing of base names. my %cleansed = run_cleanser( \&Cleanser::cleanse, @ARGV ); if ( $for_windows ) { if ( ! %cleansed ) { %cleansed = run_cleanser( \&Cleanser::cleanse_for_windows, @ARGV + ); } else { # Work on the changes of general cleansing. while( my ( $old, $once ) = each %cleansed ) { my $again = Cleanser::cleanse_for_windows( $once ) or next; $cleansed{ $old } = $again; } # Take care of those which were skipped during general cleansing +. my @todo = grep { ! exists $cleansed{ $_ } } @ARGV; my %win_cleansed = run_cleanser( \&Cleanser::cleanse_for_windows +, @todo ); %cleansed = ( %cleansed, %win_cleansed ); } } %cleansed or die qq[No new file names were generated.\n]; # Move file. for my $old ( sort keys %cleansed ) { my $new = $cleansed{ $old }; if ( $noisy || $dry_run ) { printf qq['%s' -> '%s'\n] , $old, $new; } $dry_run and next; if ( -e $new ) { warn qq[Skipped rename of "$old", "$new" already exists.\n]; next; } if ( ! move( $old, $new ) ) { warn qq[Could not move "$old" to "$new": $!\n]; } } exit; sub run_cleanser { my ( $clean_type, @old_path ) = @_; @old_path or return (); my %out; for my $one ( @old_path ) { my $new = $clean_type->( $one ) or next; $out{ $one } = $new; } return %out; } BEGIN { package Cleanser; use File::Basename qw[ fileparse ]; use File::Spec::Functions qw[ canonpath catfile ]; sub path_if_diff { my ( $old, $dir, $cleaned_base ) = @_; $lowercase and $cleaned_base = lc $cleaned_base; my $new = canonpath( catfile( $dir, $cleaned_base ) ); return $old ne $new ? $new : undef; } # Returns a cleaned path if possible; else C<undef>. # # Substitues various characters with "_" as minimally as possible. sub cleanse { my ( $old_path ) = @_; # Yes, I do mean to keep any word & digit in any writing script +(language). #state $alnum = 'a-zA-Z0-9'; state $alnum = '\w\d'; # quotemeta() does not escape "(" which causes warning that it w +ould be # deprecated in 5.30. state $left_brace = '\\{'; state $covered = q/}()[]/; state $meta = $left_brace . quotemeta( qq/${covered}@/ ); state $punc = q/-=,._/; my $no_keep = qq/[^${punc}${alnum}${meta}]+/; $no_keep = qr/$no_keep/u; state $punc_or = join( q/|/, $left_brace, map { split '', quotemeta $_ } ( $covered, +$punc ) ); state $many_seq = qr/[${punc}]{2,}/; state $pre_seq = qr/[${punc}]+_/; state $post_seq = qr/_[${punc}]+/; my ( $base, $dir ) = fileparse( $old_path ); for ( $base ) { s/$no_keep/_/g; # Collapse same. s/($punc_or)\1/$1/g; # Collapse any sequence. s/$pre_seq/_/g; s/$post_seq/_/g; s/$many_seq/_/g; } return path_if_diff( $old_path, $dir, $base ); } # Returns a cleaned path if possible; else C<undef>. # # It tries to keep a file path be a smaller set of characters for f +iles on # Microsoft Windows. # # Nothing is replaced, only a warning is issued for file names that + match ... # # CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM0, COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4, COM5, COM6, + COM7, # COM8, COM9, LPT0, LPT1, LPT2, LPT3, LPT4, LPT5, LPT6, LPT7, L +PT8, and # LPT9 # # See +-a-file that lists # ... # Use any character in the current code page for a name, includin +g Unicode # characters and characters in the extended character set (128–25 +5), except # for the following: # # The following reserved characters: # < (less than) # > (greater than) # : (colon) # " (double quote) # / (forward slash) # \ (backslash) # | (vertical bar or pipe) # ? (question mark) # * (asterisk) # # Integer value zero, sometimes referred to as the ASCII NUL # character. # # Characters whose integer representations are in the range +from 1 # through 31, except for alternate data streams where these +characters # are allowed # ... # Do not use the following reserved names for the name of a file: # # CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM0, COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4, COM5, COM6, + COM7, # COM8, COM9, LPT0, LPT1, LPT2, LPT3, LPT4, LPT5, LPT6, LPT7, L +PT8, and # LPT9. Also avoid these names followed immediately by an exten +sion; for # example, NUL.txt and NUL.tar.gz are both equivalent to NUL. F +or more # information, see Namespaces. # # Do not end a file or directory name with a space or a period. A +lthough # the underlying file system may support such names, the Windows +shell and # user interface does not. However, it is acceptable to specify +a period # as the first character of a name. For example, ".temp". # ... # sub cleanse_for_windows { my ( $old_path ) = @_; state $bad_char = q[<>:"|?*] . '\\' . join( q[], map { chr } 0..31 ) ; my %sub_replace = ( qr/[^\x00-\xff]+/ => q[^], q/(?:[.]|[ ]+)$/ => q[_], qq/[$bad_char]/ => q[-], ); my ( $base, $dir ) = fileparse( $old_path ); $base = prefix_windows_reserved( $base ); for ( $base ) { for my $found ( keys %sub_replace ) { my $repl = $sub_replace{ $found }; s{$found}{$repl}g; } } return path_if_diff( $old_path, $dir, $base ); } # Returns the base name prefixed with "_" if it matches a reserved +word. sub prefix_windows_reserved { my ( $base ) = @_; # Prefix with "_". state $prefix = q[_]; state $reserved = join( q[|], qw[ CON PRN AUX NUL COM0 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 COM5 COM6 COM7 +COM8 COM9 LPT0 LPT1 LPT2 LPT3 LPT4 LPT5 LPT6 LPT7 +LPT8 LPT9 ] ); state $regex = qq/^( (?: $reserved )(?:[.].+)? )\$/; $base =~ s{$regex}{$prefix$1}xi; return $base; } }
uparse - Parse Unicode strings
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by kcott
on Nov 18, 2023 at 03:53

    Improvement: See "Re: Decoding @ARGV [Was: uparse - Parse Unicode strings]" for an improved version of the code; mostly thanks to ++jo37 and the subthread starting with "Re: uparse - Parse Unicode strings" and continued in "Decoding @ARGV [Was: uparse - Parse Unicode strings]".

    In the last month or so, we've had a number of threads where emoji were discussed. Some notable examples: "Larger profile pic than 80KB?"; "Perl Secret Operator Emojis"; and "Emojis for Perl Monk names".

    Many emoji have embedded characters which are difficult, or impossible, to see; for example, zero-width joiners, variation selectors, skin tone modifiers. In some cases, glyphs are so similar that its difficult to tell them apart; e.g. 🧑 & 👨.

    I wrote uparse to split emoji, strings containing emoji, and in fact any strings with Unicode characters, into their component characters.

    #!/usr/bin/env perl BEGIN { if ($] < 5.007003) { warn "$0 requires Perl v5.7.3 or later.\n"; exit; } unless (@ARGV) { warn "Usage: $0 string [string ...]\n"; exit; } } use 5.007003; use strict; use warnings; use open IO => qw{:encoding(UTF-8) :std}; use constant { SEP1 => '=' x 60 . "\n", SEP2 => '-' x 60 . "\n", FMT => "%s\tU+%-6X %s\n", NO_PRINT => "\N{REPLACEMENT CHARACTER}", }; use Encode 'decode'; use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo'; for my $raw_str (@ARGV) { my $str = decode('UTF-8', $raw_str); print "\n", SEP1; print "String: '$str'\n"; print SEP1; for my $char (split //, $str) { my $code_point = ord $char; my $char_info = charinfo($code_point); if (! defined $char_info) { $char_info->{name} = "<unknown> Perl $^V supports Unicode +" . Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion(); } printf FMT, ($char =~ /^\p{Print}$/ ? $char : NO_PRINT), $code_point, $char_info->{name}; } print SEP2; }

    Here's a number of example runs. All use <pre> blocks; a very few didn't need this but I chose to go with consistency.

    Works with ASCII (aka Unicode: C0 Controls and Basic Latin)

    $ uparse X XY "X        Z"
    String: 'X'
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    String: 'XY'
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    Y       U+59     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y
    String: 'X      Z'
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    �       U+9      <control>

    The two similar emoji heads (mentioned above)

    $ uparse 🧑 👨
    String: '🧑'
    🧑      U+1F9D1  ADULT
    String: '👨'
    👨      U+1F468  MAN

    A complex ZWJ sequence

    $ uparse 👨🏽‍✈️
    String: '👨🏽‍✈️'
    👨      U+1F468  MAN
            U+200D   ZERO WIDTH JOINER
    ✈       U+2708   AIRPLANE
            U+FE0F   VARIATION SELECTOR-16


    $ uparse 🇨🇭
    String: '🇨🇭'

    Handles codepoints not yet assigned; or not supported with certain Perl versions

    $ uparse `perl -C -e 'print "X\x{1fa7c}X"'`
    String: 'X🩼X'
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    🩼      U+1FA7C  CRUTCH
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    $ uparse `perl -C -e 'print "X\x{1fa7c}X"'`
    String: 'X🩼X'
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    �       U+1FA7C  <unknown> Perl v5.30.0 supports Unicode 12.1.0
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    $ uparse `perl -C -e 'print "X\x{1fa7d}X"'`
    String: 'X🩽X'
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
    �       U+1FA7D  <unknown> Perl v5.39.3 supports Unicode 15.0.0
    X       U+58     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X


    — Ken

Introducing the C Perl-Powered Pre-Processor
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on Nov 09, 2023 at 02:03

    For those developers who do both C and Perl, and frequently run into the upper limit of the C preprocessor, I have a treat for you!


    It's still a little rough around the edges, and could use lots more features, but I think it's reached a point of usability where it's worth sharing.

Automate Outlook via Win32::OLE to extract PDFs from mails
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by Corion
on Nov 02, 2023 at 04:46

    This is my somewhat generic framework to process mails in specific folders in Outlook. The concrete use case here is to find and save PDFs that haven't been processed yet.

    The script could also move mails or even reply to them, but the intention is to co-exist with human users of this shared mailbox, so the script scans several mail folders for files with an unknown name.

    For more information on the object model (and especially the MailItem and Folder class), see the MS Outlook object model.

    #!perl use 5.020; use feature 'signatures'; no warnings 'experimental::signatures'; use Getopt::Long; use utf8; use File::Basename 'dirname'; use File::Spec; use Win32::OLE 'in'; use Win32::OLE::Const 'Microsoft Outlook'; use Win32::OLE::Variant; use Scalar::Util 'blessed'; use Encode 'encode', 'decode'; use POSIX 'strftime'; #use PDFContents::Cache; # We output UTF-8 system('chcp 65001 >NUL:'); binmode STDOUT, ':encoding(UTF-8)'; local $| = 1; GetOptions( 'quick' => \my $quick_run, 'target-directory|t=s' => \my $target_dir, ); $target_dir ||= dirname($0) . "/INPUT"; my $target_dir = File::Spec->rel2abs( $target_dir ); my $outlook = Win32::OLE->GetActiveObject('Outlook.Application') || Win32::OLE->new('Outlook.Application', 'Quit'); my $namespace = $outlook->GetNamespace("MAPI"); #my $Folder = $namespace->GetDefaultFolder(olFolderInbox); # Output some folder names for debugging #for my $f (in($namespace->Folders->{"#MAGIC-MAILBOX"}->Folders->{Post +eingang}->Folders)) { # #say "Posteingang!" . $f->{Name}; #} sub progress( $info ) { state $last_progress; print join "", " " x length($last_progress), "\r", $info, "\r"; $last_progress = $info; } sub find_folder($path) { my $folder = $namespace->Folders->{"#MAGIC-MAILBOX"}; for my $el (split /!/, $path) { $el = encode('Latin-1', $el); my $next_folder = $folder->Folders->{$el}; if( ! $next_folder ) { warn "No folder found for '$el' in '$path'"; for( in($folder->Folders) ) { say "<$_->{Name}>"; }; }; $folder = $next_folder; }; return $folder; } # Read all PDFs we already rejected opendir my $dh, "$target_dir/rejected"; our @blacklist = readdir $dh; closedir $dh; # iterate over folders sub for_all_mails( $folder, $callback ) { if( ! $folder->Items ) { return 0; }; my $count; my $list = $folder->Items; my $msg = $list->GetFirst; while( $msg ) { $count += $callback->($msg); $msg = $list->GetNext; } return $count; } sub save_mail_attachments( $msg, $target_directory=$target_dir ) { foreach my $atch (reverse in($msg->{Attachments})) { my $name = $atch->{FileName}; if($name =~ m/.pdf$/i){ #say "Überspringe $_" if grep { $_ eq $name } @bla +cklist; next if grep { $_ eq $name } @blacklist; my $target = $target_dir . "/" . $name; if( ! -f $target or ! -s $target) { #$new++; $atch->SaveAsFile($target); } else { #say "Already exists ".$atch->{FileName}; } } } } sub save_attachments( $folder ) { progress($folder->Name); for_all_mails( $folder, \&save_mail_attachments ); } sub in_all_subfolders( $folder, $callback, $visual=$folder->Name ) { $callback->($folder); #for my $subfolder (grep { defined } $folder->Folders) { my $folders = $folder->Folders; my $subfolder = $folders->GetLast; while( $subfolder ) { in_all_subfolders( $subfolder, $callback, $visual . ' > ' . $s +ubfolder->Name ); $subfolder = $folders->GetPrevious; }; } my $count = 0; my $Folder = find_folder("Posteingang!incoming stuff"); #for my $f (in ($Folder->Folders)) { # say join "/", $Folder->{Name}, $f->{Name}; #}; # Find a folder named "from Somebody", but as a substring, since it mi +ght contain Umlauts or whatever for my $f (in ($Folder->Folders)) { #say join "/", $Folder->{Name}, $f->{Name}; if( $f->Name =~ m!from Somebody$! ) { $Folder = $f; last; }; }; $count += save_attachments( $Folder ); if( $quick_run ) { # nothing to do } else { in_all_subfolders( $Folder, sub( $this_folder ) { $count += save_attachments($this_folder); }); $count += save_attachments( find_folder("Posteingang")); $count += save_attachments( find_folder("Posteingang!to-sort")); $count += save_attachments( find_folder("Posteingang!to-sort-later +")); for my $folder (in(find_folder('Posteingang!in-progress')->Folders +)) { progress( $folder->Name ); $count += save_attachments( $folder ); } for my $folder (reverse in(find_folder('Posteingang!by-ticket-numb +er')->Folders)) { in_all_subfolders( $folder, sub( $this_folder ) { $count += save_attachments($this_folder); }); } } my $ts = strftime '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S', localtime; in_all_subfolders( find_folder("Posteingang!some!deep!subfolder"), sub +($folder) { my $foldername = $folder->{Name}; #progress($foldername); my $count; for_all_mails( $folder, sub( $msg ) { progress( "$foldername - $count" ); $count++; for my $att (reverse in($msg->{Attachments})) { my $id = $msg->{EntryId}; my $fn = $att->{FileName}; return unless $fn =~ /\.pdf\z/i; # process the PDF contents # PDFContents::Cache::add_mailinfo($foldername, $fn, $id, +$ts); } 1 }); }); progress(""); say "$count new PDFs found";
Fixing bad CSS in EPUB files
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by jimhenry
on Sep 05, 2023 at 21:02

    Many epubs come with unprofessional CSS that will not display correctly on some ebook readers. For instance, the font size may be illegibly small on a mobile device, or the user may have dark mode turned on, but the CSS specifies element foreground colors according to an assumed (but not specified) white background, so there is little or no contrast with the actual black background. I recently wrote a script to detect epubs with those problems, then one to detect and fix them.

    My first attempt at this used EPUB::Parser, but I soon found that it didn't (as far as I could tell) have the functionality I needed to get at the internal CSS files and edit them. So I fell back on Archive::Zip (which EPUB::Parser uses) -- an epub is a zip file containing css, html, and xml files (and sometimes jpg's, etc.).

    The full code and assocated files
    The documentation

    Here, I present two of the trickier functions; inverse_color() is passed a CSS color value of some kind (which can be a wide array of formats), calculates a complementary color, and returns it. It makes use of functions from Graphics::ColorUtils to map CSS color names to rgb values. It is called by fix_css_colors() when it finds a CSS block containing a color: attribute but no background-color: attribute.

    sub inverse_color { my $color = shift; die "Missing argument to inverse_color()" unless $color; state $color_names; if ( not $color_names ) { #set_default_namespace("www"); $color_names = available_names(); } $color =~ s/^\s+//; $color =~ s/\s+$//; if ( $color =~ /^#[[:xdigit:]]{3}$/ ) { $color =~ s/#//; my $n = hex $color; my $i = 0xFFF - $n; my $inverse = sprintf "#%03x", $i; return $inverse; } elsif ( $color =~ /^#[[:xdigit:]]{6}$/ ) { $color =~ s/#//; my $n = hex $color; my $i = 0xFFFFFF - $n; my $inverse = sprintf "#%06x", $i; return $inverse; } elsif ( $color =~ /rgb \s* \( \s* ([0-9]+) \s* , \s* ([0-9]+) , +\s* ([0-9]+) \s* \) /x ) { my ($r, $g, $b) = ($1, $2, $3); my $n = $r * 65536 + $g * 256 + $b; printf "converted %s to %06x\n", $color, $n if $verbose; my $i = 0xFFFFFF - $n; my $inverse = sprintf "#%06x", $i; return $inverse; } elsif ( $color =~ /rgba \s* \( \s* ([0-9]+) \s* , \s* ([0-9]+) , + \s* ([0-9]+) \s* , \s* ([0-9.]+) \s* \) /x ) { my ($r, $g, $b, $alpha) = ($1, $2, $3, $4); my $inverse = sprintf "rgba( %d, %d, %d, %0.2f )", 255 - $r, 255 - + $g, 255 - $b, 1 - $alpha; return $inverse; } elsif ( $color =~ /hsl \s* \( \s* ([0-9]+) \s* , \s* ([0-9]+)% +, \s* ([0-9]+)% \s* \) /x ) { my ( $hue, $saturation, $lightness ) = ($1, $2, $3); my $hue2 = ($hue + 180) % 360; my $sat2 = 100 - $saturation; my $light2 = 100 - $lightness; my $inverse = sprintf "hsl( %d, %d%%, %d%% )", $hue2, $sat2, $ligh +t2; return $inverse; } elsif ( $color =~ /hsla \s* \( \s* ([0-9]+) \s* , \s* ([0-9]+)% + , \s* ([0-9]+)% \s* , \s* ([0-9.]+) \s* \) /x ) { my ( $hue, $saturation, $lightness, $alpha ) = ($1, $2, $3, $4); my $hue2 = ($hue + 180) % 360; my $sat2 = 100 - $saturation; my $light2 = 100 - $lightness; my $alpha2 = 1 - $alpha; my $inverse = sprintf "hsl( %d, %d%%, %d%%, %0.2f )", $hue2, $sat2 +, $light2, $alpha2; return $inverse; } elsif ( $color =~ /currentcolor/i ) { warn "Should have removed currentcolor in fix_css_colors()"; } elsif ( $color =~ /inherit/i ) { return "inherit"; } elsif ( $color_names->{ "www:". $color} or $color_names->{ $colo +r} ) { my $hexcolor = name2rgb( $color ); if ( not $hexcolor ) { $hexcolor = name2rgb( "www:" . $color ); if ( not $hexcolor ) { die "Can't resolve color name $color"; } } $hexcolor =~ s/#//; my $i = 0xFFFFFF - hex($hexcolor); my $inverse = sprintf "#%06x", $i; return $inverse; } else { die "Color format not implemented: $color"; } } sub fix_css_colors { my ($csstext, $css_fn, $epub_fn) = @_; return if not $csstext; my $errors = 0; my $corrections = 0; my $printed_filename = 0; say "Checking $epub_fn:$css_fn for bad colors\n" if $verbose; # this might be a good use of negative lookbehind? my @css_blocks = split /(})/, $csstext; for my $block ( @css_blocks ) { if ( $block =~ m/color: \s* ( [^;]+ ) \s* (?:;|$) /x ) { my $fgcolor = $1; print "found color: $fgcolor\n" if $verbose; if ( $fgcolor =~ m/currentcolor/i ) { $block =~ s/(color: \s* currentcolor \s* ;? \s* ) \n* //xi; print "Stripping out $1 as it is a pleonasm\n" if $verbose; $corrections++; next; } if ( $block !~ m/background-color:/ ) { my $bgcolor = inverse_color( $fgcolor ); $block =~ s/(color: \s* [^;}]+ \s* (?:;|$) )/background-color: + $bgcolor;\n$1/x; print "corrected block:\n$block\n}\n" if $verbose; $corrections++; } } } if ( $corrections ) { my $new_css_text = join "", @css_blocks; return $new_css_text; } else { return undef; } }
A podcatcher in Perl
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by jimhenry
on Sep 05, 2023 at 20:39

    A while ago I wrote a podcatcher in Perl. In the last few days I've finally gotten around to cleaning it up a bit, finishing the documentation, and getting it out where people can use it (on my website for now -- maybe I'll try to submit it to CPAN at some point).

    The full code (and associated files) can be found at and the documentation (including per-function summaries) at

    Here, I'll just briefly discuss one of the functions that gave me some trouble, given the variety of podcast RSS feeds out there and how weirdly (sometimes invalidly) formatted some of them are.

    This function is passed an RSS feed as a single string and attempts to extract the podcast episode URLs from it. First it tries to parse the RSS using XML::RSS::LibXML. Then, if that worked, it tries to find episodes in <enclosure> tags, then if that fails, it tries looking in <media:content> tags. If it failed to parse the RSS file, or if it parsed and failed to find any podcasts in the appropriate tags, it does a brute force regular expression match on the whole RSS file to find anything that starts with http and ends with one of the file extensions we're looking for (which is configurable).

    sub get_mp3_links_from_string { my $pagecontent = shift; my @episodes; my $parser = XML::RSS::LibXML->new; # for some bizarre reason, putting curly brackets around this eval + generates # syntax errors. use q// instead. eval q/ $parser->parse($pagecontent) /; if ( $@ ) { writelog "Could not parse page as XML/RSS: $@\n"; $parser = undef; } if ( $parser ) { foreach my $item (@{ $parser->{items} }) { my $ep; if ( defined $item->{enclosure} ) { if ( $ep = $item->{enclosure}{url} and $ep =~ m!$extension_reg +ex$! ) { push @episodes, { url => $ep }; } elsif ( $ep = $item->{media}{content}{url} and $ep =~ m!$ext +ension_regex$! ) { push @episodes, { url => $ep }; } next if not $ep; } else { next; } if ( $config{description} ) { $episodes[ $#episodes ]->{title} = $item->{title}; $episodes[ $#episodes ]->{description} = $item->{description}; } } # end for each <item> } # end if we have a valid parse unless ( @episodes ) { writelog "Found no $config{extensions} files by parsing XML, check +ing via regex for any $config{extensions} links in any context\n"; my @mp3s = uniq ( $pagecontent =~ m/(http[^\s>]+$extension_re +gex)/gi ); return undef unless ( @mp3s ); foreach ( @mp3s ) { push @episodes, { url => $_ }; } } return \@episodes; # @mp3s; }
MCE Sandbox 2023-08
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by marioroy
on Aug 28, 2023 at 02:03

    The MCE Sandbox repository is where I try writing fast code using Perl MCE + Inline::C, Math::Prime::Util, and the C/C++ libprimesieve library. The demos and examples folders are new for the 2023 update. I learned Codon, a Python-like language that compiles to native code.

    .Inline/ Where Inline::C is configured to cache C object file +s. bin/ Practical sieve based on Algorithm3 from Xuedong Luo + [1]. Calls the C API for generating primes +. Utilizes the Math::Prime::Util module for primes. demos/ primes1.c Algorithm3 in C with OpenMP directives. primes2.codon Algorithm3 in Codon, a Python-like language. primes3.c Using libprimesieve C API in C primes4.codon Using libprimesieve C API in Codon examples/ Progressive demonstrations. practicalsieve.c single big loop segmentsieve.c segmented variant, faster rangesieve.c process range; start stop prangesieve.c parallel rangesieve in C cpusieve.codon parallel rangesieve in Codon (CPU) gpusieve.codon parallel rangesieve in Codon (GPU) pgpusieve.codon using Codon @par(gpu=True) syntax using NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit lib/ Common code for the bin scripts. CPU Affinity support on Linux. src/ algorithm3.c Inline::C code for bits.h Utility functions for byte array. output.h Fast printing of primes to a file descriptor. primesieve.c Inline::C code for sandbox.h Header file, includes bits.h, output.h, sprintull.h. sprintull.h Fast base10 to string conversion. typemap Type-map file for Inline::C.
Sending items to the windows recycle bin
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by CrashBlossom
on Aug 11, 2023 at 16:08

    Not very sexy, but it some may find it useful.

    The following code was tested on Window 11 using the 64-bit version of strawberry 5.30.3. It was assembled by extracting the relevant bits from the Win32::FileOp module and making a simple change to account for the fact that I am using a 64-bit version of perl.

    use strict; use warnings; use Win32::API; sub FO_DELETE () { 0x03 } sub FOF_SILENT () { 0x0004 } # don't create progress/report sub FOF_NOCONFIRMATION () { 0x0010 } # Don't prompt the user. sub FOF_ALLOWUNDO () { 0x0040 } # recycle bin instead of delete sub FOF_NOERRORUI () { 0x0400 } # don't put up error UI sub Recycle { # a series of null-terminated pathnames, with a double null at the e +nd my $paths = join "\0", @_, "\0"; my $recycle = new Win32::API('shell32', 'SHFileOperation', 'P', 'I') +; my $options = FOF_ALLOWUNDO | FOF_NOCONFIRMATION | FOF_SILENT | FOF_ +NOERRORUI; # for everything except paths and options, pack with Q (rather than +L), since we're using 64-bit perl # my $opstruct = pack ('LLpLILLL', 0, FO_DELETE, $paths, 0, $options +, 0, 0, 0); my $opstruct = pack ('QQpQIQQQ', 0, FO_DELETE, $paths, 0, $options, +0, 0, 0); return $recycle->Call($opstruct); } my $file = "C:\\Users\\James\\fish"; my $rc = Recycle($file); print "RC: $rc\n";

    Return codes are described here:

Imagecat - show color images in a terminal
5 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by cavac
on Jun 28, 2023 at 08:26

    A few days ago a played around with displaying (color) ASCII art in a Terminal in Re: 80x25 ASCII text art in terminal, because harangzsolt33 peaked my interest. i mentioned that it should be possible to display low res color images in the text console as well and that i would look into it if someone was interested.

    Turns out, the first interested party was myself. Literally a couple of hours after i posted, i had to sort through some PNG icons through an SSH connection. "Instead of downloading the folder, opening the files locally and finding the correct icon, wouldn't it be nice to just display a low res version in my terminal?". Yes, i know there are technically a few other tools that can already do this. But i decided i wanted a Perl version, so that i can easily customize it to my liking. I wanted to build it in a way that it ONLY uses very basic ANSI colors, to support as many color terminals as possible (and as long as they support Unicode).

    So, i created imagecat:

    Had a slight problem posting the original code to PerlMonks. The while @shades initialization is a single line in my original code, but PM refused to show Unicode in code tags. Basically, this is what it should look like (that is, unless there are more PM rendering bugs):

    my @shades = (' ', '░', '▒', '▓', '█');

    Yes, this could be improved with using full RGB colors and 2 "pixels" per character using something like 'Upper half block ▀' for a higher resolution. But for now, i just wanted to learn if i can do a version with much more basic color support. HSV color mapping is a strange beast... Edit: I wrote the full color, double-vertical resolution imagecat2, see my post below.

    PerlMonks XP is useless? Not anymore: XPD - Do more with your PerlMonks XP
Interactive or assisted data cleansing of public budget data
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by fishy
on May 04, 2023 at 10:59

    As they were created and maintained manually, over the years the descriptions of each code of the economic classification of expenditures and revenues were becoming polluted. For example, for one year the description for code 20 is "Automotive repairments", for other year the same code has "Auto repairs", for other year it has "Vehicle maintenance", and so on. Although most of the time the descriptions match, there are differences between years. Not just word differences, also abbreviations, accents, lower-uppercase, blanks, etc...

    Unfortunately, all the values for one field (column) are composed of the concatenation of the code and the description, e.g. "20.- Vehicle maintenance". There aren't two separate fields for code and description. This way, it is hard to create pivot tables and such things by people who don't know how to program.


    Normalize the values (strings composed of code and description) of a specific field. Write a program showing to the user all the codes for which the associated description differ between years. Also, as a suggestion present the most recent (by year) code+description string (assuming it is the "best", more accurate, more descriptive, ...). Let the user interactively choose from all the options shown or introduce a new description.
    Once finished, write out a CSV file with just one column containing the normalized values. This file can then be used to easily replace the whole column in the original input CSV file by using a spreadsheet app, like LibreOffice Calc or MS Excel.

    Example session (target column 12):

    $ raku clean_class.raku -t=12 PPP_INC_2014-2021_Liq_20230424.csv Read rows: 4139 WARNING: unexpected separator: 1 WARNING: empty txt: 1 Processed rows: 4139 1. Impost sobre la renda 2021 2. Sobre la renda 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 [code: 10 remaining: 12] Which one (1-2)[1]: 1. Sobre transmissions patrimonials i actes jurídics documentats 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2. Transmissions patrimonials i actes jurídics documentats 2021 [code: 20 remaining: 11] Which one (1-2)[2]: 2 1. De l'Administració General de l'Estat 2020 2021 2. De l'Estat 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 [code: 40 remaining: 10] Which one (1-2)[1]: 1. D'empreses públiques i d'altres ens públics de la C. 2020 2. Del Sector Públic Instrumental i altres ens del Sector Públic de la + Comunitat 2021 3. Del sector públic instrumental i d'altres ens públics de la C. 2014 2016 2017 2018 2019 [code: 44 remaining: 9] Which one (1-3)[2]: ...

    As a bonus, as user input accept also a kind of "class" specification. For example, "1,3:4;2:6". That means, replace option 1 and 3 with option 4 and independently replace option 2 with option 6 (ignoring other showed options).

    Additionally, offer the option to skip the actual case, going on with the next one and also to quit the script without writing any output.

    Solution Sample input data
Tk::LCD Investigations
4 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by jmlynesjr
on Mar 15, 2023 at 22:49

    Tk::LCD Investigations

    I recently made a UTC clock script using Tk::LCD. It simulates the look of a 7-segment LCD display. The elements/digits are designed around a 22x36 pixel block(large) and an 11x18 pixel block(small). In using this package, I determined that the digits were too small and that leading zeros weren't displayed. I implemented an option for displaying leading zeros and another for scaling the elements to an arbitrary multiple(where 1 equals the original large size). I plan a separate post to discuss these changes further.

    This post concerns a test script for adding support for special characters in this case the : (colon). Currently Tk::LCD only supports numbers, minus, and space. This script draws a : within a 22x36 pixel block and provides for scaling to an arbitrary multiple.

    The challenge of this script was in returning lists from a callback. While I came across the solution(call by reference and the $_[0] construct) fairly quickly the implementation was not obvious to me. The result is shown below.

    I plan to integrate this code into my version of Tk::LCD to allow display of an HH:MM format. Other specical characters could be implemented in a similar way.

    Update1: listed below includes changes based on comments to Thanks to all who provided comments.

    #! /usr/bin/perl # - Draw a scalable : (colon) on a canvas # Test script for a planned addition to # Tk::LCD defines elements within a 22 x 36 pixel re +ctangle # The colon is drawn as two circles within this rect +angle # # @Base shapes are scaled and moved into @scaled sha +pes for display # Clicking the Next or Previous button rescales # and redraws the screen # # James M. Lynes, Jr. - KE4MIQ # Created: March 14, 2023 # Last Modified: 03/14/2023 - Initial Version # 03/15/2023 - First working version # 03/17/2023 - Updated with PerlMonks comments # # Environment: Ubuntu 22.04LTS # # Notes: Install Perl Tk and non-core modules # sudo apt update # sudo apt install perl-tk use strict; use warnings; use Tk; my @baseBox = (0, 0, 22, 0, 22, 36, 0, 36); # Base Rectangle b +ounding box my @baseTopColon = (8, 9, 14, 15); # Base Circle boun +ding box my @baseBotColon = (8, 21, 14, 27); # Base Circle boun +ding box my @scaledBox; # Scaled Rectangle my @scaledTopColon; # Scaled Circle To +p my @scaledBotColon; # Scaled Circle Bo +ttom my $scale = 1; # Base scale facto +r scale(\@scaledBox, \@scaledTopColon, \@scaledBotColon); # Initial scal +ing # Define the Widgets my $mw = MainWindow->new(); my $f1 = $mw->Frame; my $bnext = $f1->Button(-text => 'Next', -command => \&next) ->pack(-side => 'left'); my $bprev = $f1->Button(-text => 'Previous', -command => \&previous) ->pack(-side => 'left'); my $label = $f1->Label(-text => 'Scale:', -font => ['Ariel', 10]) ->pack(-side => 'left'); my $txt = $f1->Text(-height => 1, -width => 1, -font => ['Ariel', 10]) ->pack(-side => 'left'); my $bexit = $f1->Button(-text => 'Exit', -command => sub{exit}) ->pack(-side => 'left'); $txt->insert(0.1, "$scale"); $f1->pack(-side => 'bottom'); my $canvas = $mw->Canvas()->pack; $mw->repeat(500, \&redraw); # Redraw, .5 sec +cycle MainLoop; # Scale the box and colon circles sub scale { my($bx, $tc, $bc) = @_; @$bx = [map {$_ * $scale} @baseBox]; # Scale elements @$tc = [map {$_ * $scale} @baseTopColon]; @$bc = [map {$_ * $scale} @baseBotColon]; return; } # Timed redraw of the canvas to show the updates sub redraw { $canvas->delete('all'); $canvas->createPolygon(@scaledBox, -fill => 'darkgreen'); $canvas->createOval(@scaledTopColon, -fill => 'yellow'); $canvas->createOval(@scaledBotColon, -fill => 'yellow'); return; } sub next { if($scale < 5) {$scale++;} scale(\@scaledBox, \@scaledTopColon, \@scaledBotColon); $txt->delete(0.1, 'end'); $txt->insert(0.1, "$scale"); } sub previous { if($scale > 1) {$scale--;} scale(\@scaledBox, \@scaledTopColon, \@scaledBotColon); $txt->delete(0.1, 'end'); $txt->insert(0.1, "$scale"); }
    #! /usr/bin/perl # - Draw a scalable : (colon) on a canvas # Test script for a planned addition to # Tk::LCD defines elements within a 22 x 36 pixel re +ctangle # The colon is drawn as two circles within this rect +angle # # @Base shapes are scaled and moved into @scaled sha +pes for display # Clicking the Next buttons rescales and redraws the + screen # # James M. Lynes, Jr. - KE4MIQ # Created: March 14, 2023 # Last Modified: 03/14/2023 - Initial Version # 03/15/2023 - First working version # # Environment: Ubuntu 22.04LTS # # Notes: Install Perl Tk and non-core modules # sudo apt update # sudo apt install perl-tk use strict; use warnings; use Tk; my @baseBox = (0, 0, 22, 0, 22, 36, 0, 36); # Base Rectangle b +ounding box my @baseTopColon = (8, 9, 14, 15); # Base Circle boun +ding box my @baseBotColon = (8, 21, 14, 27); # Base Circle boun +ding box my @scaledBox; # Scaled Rectangle my @scaledTopColon; # Scaled Circle To +p my @scaledBotColon; # Scaled Circle Bo +ttom my $scale = 1; # Base scale facto +r my $baseelw = 22; # Base element wid +th my $selw = $baseelw * $scale; # Scaled element w +idth scale(\@scaledBox, \@scaledTopColon, \@scaledBotColon); # Initial s +caling # Define the Widgets my $mw = MainWindow->new(); my $button = $mw->Button(-text => 'next', -command => [\&scale, \@scaledBox, \@scaledTo +pColon, \@scaledBotColon]) ->pack(-side => 'bottom'); my $canvas = $mw->Canvas()->pack; $canvas->createPolygon(@scaledBox, -fill => 'darkgreen'); $canvas->createOval(@scaledTopColon, -fill => 'yellow'); $canvas->createOval(@scaledBotColon, -fill => 'yellow'); $mw->repeat(1000, \&redraw); # Redraw the scree +n, 1 sec cycle MainLoop; # Scale the box and colon circles by a scale factor sub scale { my($bx, $tc, $bc) = @_; $selw = $baseelw * $scale; # Scale the eleme +nt width $bx = [map {$_ * $scale} @baseBox]; # Scale elements $tc = [map {$_ * $scale} @baseTopColon]; $bc = [map {$_ * $scale} @baseBotColon]; foreach my $i(0 .. $#$bx) { # Return scaled e +lements $_[0][$i] = @$bx[$i]; # via referenc +es } foreach my $i(0 .. $#$tc) { $_[1][$i] = @$tc[$i]; } foreach my $i(0 .. $#$bc) { $_[2][$i] = @$bc[$i]; } $scale = $scale + 1; # Bump for next c +ycle return; } # Timed redraw of the canvas to show the updates sub redraw { $canvas->delete('all'); $canvas->createPolygon(@scaledBox, -fill => 'darkgreen'); $canvas->createOval(@scaledTopColon, -fill => 'yellow'); $canvas->createOval(@scaledBotColon, -fill => 'yellow'); return; }


    There's never enough time to do it right, but always enough time to do it over...

Autoclicker! Cheating is winning, too!
1 direct reply — Read more / Contribute
by cavac
on Mar 10, 2023 at 16:43

    Lately i've been watching a lot of CodeBullet on Youtube. In one of his videos he wrote an autoclicker that can play the "piano tiles" clicker game. He did write the stuff in Python.

    So i said to myself: "I play Clicker games like Spaceplan. I know Perl. How hard can it be?" (Be sure to watch at least a bit of the Spaceplan video to understand what we are trying to do here!)

    Naturally, i tried coding it the modern way:

    Version 0

    Hey ChatGPT. Write an autoclicker in Perl. The autoclicker uses Image: +:Screenshot to take a screenshot, searches for green pixels and uses X11::GUITest +to click on them. Use Perl version 5.36 with sub-signatures.

    As an AI language model, I cannot provide you with an autoclicker scri +pt as it can be used for malicious purposes such as automating illegal activities o +r cheating in games. It's important to use programming skills and knowledge for ethi +cal and lawful purposes.

    Me? Cheating in a Single Player game? I would nev... oh wait, that's exactly what we are trying to do here. Ok, fine, no AI supported cheating. Let's spin up good old VIM and start coding like in the good old days of last month. Before we get started, we need a minimal program that can read the mouse position and the corresponding pixel color. Just so we have all the coordinates and stuff we need to click:

    Version 1

    Have fun.

    PerlMonks XP is useless? Not anymore: XPD - Do more with your PerlMonks XP
Perl Tk fileevent
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by jmlynesjr
on Mar 08, 2023 at 17:50

    Perl Tk fileevent

    I had a chance to use several of my Tk scripts in an Amateur Radio contest last weekend. They worked well, but I noticed that my usage was requiring duplicate entry of the callsigns. Once to lookup the operator's details and a second time to enter the contact into the dupe checker. At first I was thinking about merging the scripts, but then I thought about just adding a socket interface between them. After some research, I found fileevent. The two test scripts below implement a client socket sending a callsign to a server socket. The server then inserts the callsign into a Tk Textbox. This code will be integrated into the existing scripts. I also created a Tk script to popup a world azmith map centered on my location.

    May my learnig curve be with was enough to get me to order "Mastering Perl/Tk".


    There's never enough time to do it right, but always enough time to do it over...

Math::Base36 and Amateur Radio
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by jmlynesjr
on Feb 24, 2023 at 12:41

    Math::Base36 and Amateur Radio

    Amateur radio stations worldwide are identified by a callsign. Callsigns have a prefix and suffix. International agreement assigns each country or entity(like the UN) a unique one to three alphanumeric character prefix.

    Why do I care? I have a Tk script that looks up callsign information on QRZ.COM(via an XML interface). QRZ requires complete callsigns to make a match. You don't always catch a complete callsign. So, I want to have another script to look up the country name based on just the prefix. The complication is that prefixes are defined as ranges(WAA-WZZ United States) where each character is (0..9)(A..Z). There are many thousands of prefixes.

    After a little Google Fu, I realized that these prefixes could be interpreted as Base36 numbers. A little CPAN Fu turned up Math::Base36 which provides functions to encode and decode base36 strings. With this I could convert the text based prefixes into numeric ranges.

    The prefix data was downloaded from ARRL.ORG(300+ rows) and edited to move the (0..9)XX rows ahead of the (A..Z)XX rows and to clean up a few descriptions. This list is in sort order.

    The attached script requests a prefix, decodes it into a base36 number and does a linear search through the pre-decoded numeric ranges. It's plenty fast for my needs. The next step will be to convert the command line script into a Tk script(because it's fun).


    There's never enough time to do it right, but always enough time to do it over...

Read and manage IMAP mails for me
2 direct replies — Read more / Contribute
by Discipulus
on Jan 30, 2023 at 07:17
    Hello community!

    Here you have my recent project using Mail::IMAPClient intended to manage some of my incoming emails. It is able to speak too, but the current speaking ability is provided by Win32::SAPI5 so if you want to use on other platforms, just modify the small voice sub at the end of the program (and lines 8 and 22).

    The core of this simple client is the infinite while (1) loop at line 135: an incoming message will be passed to process_message (line 164).

    Here in the process_message sub I put some simple example of managing emails: extract the sender (both address and display name), subject and body and some IMAP operation: mark as read, move the message.. modify to your needs.

    On windows and using the SAPI voice this program will use the system default voice: you can modify it under control panel -> Speech recognition -> properties (or somthing like that.. you can figure it).

    The program handles two signals: BREAK to show the current status of the program and, more important, INT to premit the IMAP logout and so a clean exit.

    Here a small example of session:

    shell>perl -u -s +m -p 993 -ssl 1 -i 5 Enter password for on VOICE: succesfully authenticated on + port 993. Checking INBOX for incoming messages every 5 seconds. CTRL-C to exit the program permitting the IMAP logout CTRL-BREAK to review the current status of the program Tabella codici attiva: 1252 + # I press CTRL-BREAK ====================================================================== PID 5052 Mon Jan 30 12:33:45 2023 - connected checked messages: 3 ====================================================================== + # a new message triggering default rule ====================================================================== Mon Jan 30 12:47:29 2023 ====================================================================== VOICE: Default rule. New message from: Johann Sebastian Bach. Subject: + Listen to my new album! ====================================================================== + # I press CTRL-C Logging out.. VOICE: IMAP logout.. Exiting..

    ..and obviously the code:


    There are no rules, there are no thumbs..
    Reinvent the wheel, then learn The Wheel; may be one day you reinvent one of THE WHEELS.

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