Abulil has asked for the wisdom of the Perl Monks concerning the following question:

I'm a new user for this website and i'm still beginner in programming Perl language............i only know the very basics....... i need your help in programming the exponential function (e^x) e to the power of x i need to program the function it self as it appears in the picture above and then compare it to the biult-in function in Perl........ exp (); your help is too appreciated Thanks

Replies are listed 'Best First'.
Re: Exponential Function Programming
by okram (Monk) on Nov 22, 2007 at 15:44 UTC
    # exp. $n = 2; $e_n = exp($n); print "e^$n = $e_n\n"; sub my_factorial { my $n = shift; my $s=1; my $r=1; while ($s <= $n) { $r *= $s; $s++; } if($n == 0) { $r=0; } return $r; } sub my_exp_x { my $x = shift; my $max_iterations = shift; my $result = 1 + $x; my $i = 2; while ($i < $max_iterations) { $result += ($x ** ($i)) / (my_factorial($i)); $i++; } return $result; } print "test: ", my_exp_x($n,1000);

        Perl 6 is very generous in this:

        pugs> sub postfix:<!> (Int $n) { [*] 1..$n } undef pugs> say $_! for ^10 1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040 40320 362880 undef

        (I personally believe that I've posted this before here and in different media, but that's jut because it's quite about the only thing I can actually do in pugs ATM.)

      i got your program but what im looking for is how to do the basic function as it is for example i need to do X to the power of N, then divide it by N factorial and at the end add them all from (1 until the N number i entered) Thanks alot
        x to the power of n is done via: $x ** $n or
        sub x_power_n { my $x = shift; my $n = shift; my $result = $x; my $i = 1; while ($i < $n) { $result *= $x; $i++; } return $result; }
        You need to do this, though, "infinite" times, reason why I provided a parameter to "stop" after a certain time.
        A reply falls below the community's threshold of quality. You may see it by logging in.
Re: Exponential Function Programming
by fenLisesi (Priest) on Nov 22, 2007 at 17:21 UTC
    #!/usr/bin/perl -wTl use strict; use warnings; use bignum 'bexp'; ## get the latest from CPAN use Memoize; use constant MAX_POWER => 30; use constant MAX_DIGITS => 50; my $X = shift || 1; memoize('my_factorial'); my $best = bexp( $X, MAX_DIGITS ); my $estimate = 1; for my $i (1 .. MAX_POWER) { $estimate += ($X ** $i) / my_factorial( $i ); print join "\n", ($i, $best, $estimate, abs( $best - $estimate ), q()); } exit( 0 ); ##--------------------------------------------------+ sub my_factorial { my ($n) = @_; return 1 if $n == 1; $n * my_factorial( $n - 1 ); }
Re: Exponential Function Programming
by swampyankee (Parson) on Nov 23, 2007 at 01:10 UTC

    Perl has an exponentiation operator (**, just like Fortran's ;-)), so x**n is easy. I believe, however, that Perl uses the C math library's pow routine (and 0**0 is undefined, and should return NaN, regardless of Perl's behavior, but I digress). In any case, writing a sub to calculate small integer powers, with little concern for efficiency, is quite easy. The factorials require a routine. Don't make the mistake of writing a recursive routine to calculate factorials; they are easily, and much more efficiently, calculated by a for loop.

    Neither piece is particularly difficult. Beware, though, that numerical programming can be quite tricky when values get large or small. There is a wealth of information to be had, for example at na net and the Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures.


    Information about American English usage here and here.

    Any Northeastern US area jobs? I'm currently unemployed.

Re: Exponential Function Programming
by pajout (Curate) on Nov 22, 2007 at 19:33 UTC
    I think that this is more noble and incomprehensible :>)
    #!/usr/bin/perl use strict; use warnings; sub exp_ { my $x = shift; my ($d, $ret, $i) = (1.0, 1); while ($ret - $d != $ret) { $d *= $x/++$i; $ret += $d; } return $ret; } for (1..100) { print "exp($_) = ".exp_($_)."\n"; }
      $ret - $d != $ret is interesting. One would think it's the same as $d (in boolean context), but it isn't. By testing the effect of $d ($ret - $d != $ret) instead of $d itself, the loop can be ended sooner.
      my $ret = 1; for my $d (1e-15, 1e-20) { printf("%g %d %d\n", $d, ( $d )?1:0, ( $ret-$d != $ret )?1:0, ); }
      1e-015 1 1 # Often equivalent. 1e-020 1 0 # But not when there's an underflow.
        Of course, underflow behaves friendly in this case. But my prime goal was to demonstrate no necessity for evaluating both factorial and power in each loop.
Re: Exponential Function Programming
by aquarium (Curate) on Nov 23, 2007 at 03:34 UTC
    this smells like homework. have you considered trying to do your own homework or at least making a start, before yelling for basic loop algorithm help. then maybe you don't understand how to read mathematical which case this is definitely the wrong forum.
    sorry to be so harsh...but in this age of generation'll never get a job if you just become a very expensive copy machine. even beginner ideas are welcome, and sometimes provide a breath of ingenuity. where exactly is your original content/idea/anything in this thread?
    you need to show some effort on your part...otherwise it's not called "help", it's called doing it entirely for you for nothing
    the hardest line to type correctly is: stty erase ^H
      Thanks for u all appreciated